The sex chromosome complement of a normal human female is
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Either of a pair of chromosomes in diploid cells, or a single chromosome in haploid cells, carrying genes that determine the sex and sex-linked characteristics of an organism. Most mammals, including humans, have one pair of sex chromosomes in diploid cells, designated XX in females and XY in males. All rights reserved. See also X-chromosome , Y-chromosome. Copyright , , by Random House, Inc. Either of a pair of chromosomes, usually called X and Y, that in combination determine the sex of an individual in many animals and in some plants, with XX resulting in a female and XY in a male.
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The Sex Chromosome Trisomy mouse model of XXY and XYY: metabolism and motor performance
Chimera (genetics) - Wikipedia
X-inactivation also called Lyonization , after English geneticist Mary Lyon is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome is inactivated in therian female mammals. The inactive X chromosome is silenced by it being packaged into a transcriptionally inactive structure called heterochromatin. As nearly all female mammals have two X chromosomes, X-inactivation prevents them from having twice as many X chromosome gene products as males , who only possess a single copy of the X chromosome see dosage compensation. The choice of which X chromosome will be inactivated is random in placental mammals such as humans , but once an X chromosome is inactivated it will remain inactive throughout the lifetime of the cell and its descendants in the organism. Unlike the random X-inactivation in placental mammals, inactivation in marsupials applies exclusively to the paternally-derived X chromosome. The paragraphs below have to do only with rodents and do not reflect XI in the majority of mammals. X-inactivation is part of the activation cycle of the X chromosome throughout the female life.
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Chromosomes are thread-like molecules that carry hereditary information for everything from height to eye color. They are made of protein and one molecule of DNA, which contains an organism's genetic instructions, passed down from parents. In humans, animals, and plants, most chromosomes are arranged in pairs within the nucleus of a cell. Humans have 22 of these chromosome pairs, called autosomes. Humans have an additional pair of sex chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes.
Genetically , there are two types of cells in all living organisms :. We can classify chromosomes when they are in the clearest form , Chromosomes are classified into homologous pairs in somatic cells and gonads and arranged descendingly according to their size , then they are numerated , This is called the karyotype. Human karyotype. There are 46 23 pairs chromosomes in the human somatic cells , These chromosomes are descendingly arranged in homologous pairs according to their size from number 1 to number 23 , where :. The pairs from number 1 to 22 are called autosomes or somatic chromosomes , The pair number 23 represents the sex chromosomes , because it carries the genetic information of sex determination.